Explore this issue:April 2013
Critical Junctures in Cochlear Implant Development
1957—Paris: Eyriès implants Djourno’s coils; alternating current transmitted to the coil produces perception of sound.
1960-61—Los Angeles: House and Doyle begin work on prosthesis; effect electrical stimulation during stapes surgery; implant three patients with a single gold electrode.
1964—Palo Alto, Calif.: Simmons, at Stanford, develops a six-electrode system using a percutaneous plug.